003.- 13-6 Recent and Planned Developments in the CARI Program
Author: Copeland KA
CARI-6 is the sixth major release of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) dose calculation software developed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The software is of benefit to the FAA and the public as a tool used by scientists investigating health effects of ionizing radiation in the atmosphere. It provides GCR dose estimates for past flights and also serves as a verified radiation monitoring tool to aid the aviation industry and individuals in their radiation protection programs. Compiled versions of the software are available from the Radiobiology Research Team Website. The source code is available upon request.
CARI-6 is based on the last major revision of the galactic cosmic radiation transport code LUIN (LUIN2000, released in 2000). The last minor variant of LUIN2000 (LUINNCRP) was delivered to the FAA in 2003 and reported effective doses as defined in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report 116. LUINNCRP was revised to produce dose outputs of ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) and effective dose as defined in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103, in addition to the release standard of effective dose as defined in ICRP Publication 60. These modifications were needed because ICRP Pub. 103 made ICRP Pub. 60 effective doses obsolete (though still legally the standard in many countries) and H*(10) is a measureable quantity to which instruments are often calibrated, whereas effective dose cannot be measured. Thus, adding H*(10) and the new effective dose was needed to keep CARI-6 up-to-date in terms of dose calculation standards. As another improvement, cutoff rigidities for geomagnetic epoch 2000 are included (previous most recent epoch was 1995).
002.- 13-7 Assessing Prior Experience in the Selection of Air Traffic Control Specialists
Authors: Pierce LG, Williams CA, Broach D, Bleckley MK
Qualification standards published by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) describe the minimum experience or education that individuals must have to qualify for specific positions within the federal government (OPM, 2009). These standards are developed and revised in conjunction with the appropriate federal agency. The purpose of the current research project was to evaluate the OPM qualification standard for the Air Traffic Control (ATC) Series 2152 and provide recommendations for renewing the standard for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) human resources personnel. In addition to general and specialized experience and education requirements, the ATC Series 2152 qualification standard includes seven alternate requirements for use in qualifying applicants for selection by the FAA as air traffic control specialists (ATCSs). These alternate requirements reflect prior, relev ant experiences of the applicants seen as adequate to qualify them for selection. In Study 1, biographical questionnaire data were used to assess the relationship between five of the seven alternate requirements and performance of prospective ATCSs in training at the FAA Academy in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Having prior experience in ATC, holding a prior instrument flight rating, and having a pilot’s license all had a positive relationship with FAA Academy training performance and, with slight modifications, were recommended for retention as alternate requirements. The relationship between having experience as a dispatcher for an air carrier and FAA Academy training performance was not significant. However, the alternate requirement was recommended for retention due to the small number of ATCSs having experience in air-carrier dispatch. There was also no relationship found between having experience as a navigator/bombardier in the Armed Forces and FAA Academy training performance, and a recommendation was made to eliminate it as an alternate requirement. The remaining alternate requirements were addressed in Study 2, using a more qualitative approach of interviews and document review. For one alternate requirement, an update to the name of the military job referenced in the requirement was proposed. The final alternate requirement, which reflected an obsolete pay scale and testing procedures, was recommended for elimination. Based on results of Studies 1 and 2, suggestions were made for additional data collection to validate and extend the current standard to ensure that only those applicants most likely to succeed as ATCSs are selected. Periodic review of the OPM 2152 qualification standard is necessary as the role of the ATCS and the experiences of the populations being targeted for recruitment continue to evolve.
001.- 13-8 Laser Illumination of Helicopters: A Comparative Analysis With Fixed-Wing Aircraft for the Period 1980 – 2011
Authors: Montgomery RW, Wood KJ
INTRODUCTION. Laser illuminations of aircraft have resulted in pilots reporting distraction, disruption, disorientation, adverse visual effects, and operational problems that put at risk the safety of the aircraft and those onboard. FAA Order 7400.2 was revised in 1995 to establish lower laser exposure limits that protected flight crewmembers in specific zones of airspace around airports. However, helicopters (including police, air ambulance, military, and news media aircraft) that routinely operate at low altitudes outside these zones continue to be exposed to hazardous levels of laser radiation. This study examines the frequency of these events and adverse effects of laser illuminations involving helicopters compared with fixed-wing aircraft for a 32-year study period (from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2011). METHODS. Reports of helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft illuminated by high-intensity light have been collected from various sources and entered into a database maintained by the Vision Research Team at the FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. The frequency of laser illumination events involving aircraft in the United States were stratified by altitude into 1,000-foot increments, categorized, and analyzed. Analysis included identifying adverse effects experienced by helicopter flight crewmembers, compared to those experienced by crewmembers of fixed-wing aircraft. RESULTS. The majority of helicopter laser exposures (70% or 751/1,072) were within the altitude limit established for the Laser Free Zone (LFZ ≤ 2,000 feet) versus only 18% (1,980/11,111) for fixed-wing aircraft. More than 86% (328/379) of all adverse effects reported by helicopter pilots were in this altitude range, compared to 29% (294/1,027) of all fixed-wing effects reported. CONCLUSION: Special protective measures may be needed for helicopters and other low-flying aircraft outside of designated airport hazard zones due to the higher percentage of adverse effects associated with these events and the increased risk inherent in low-altitude flight operations.